Next, together with a look at the car crash test dummies.
In the early car crash test, the staff will personally participate in the test, but because the risk factor is too high, considering the safety of the testers' lives, and then choose chimpanzees and other animals instead of humans to conduct the crash test, but was opposed by the Animal Protection Association and animal lovers, and then this difficult task was replaced by a dummy to complete.
It is worth mentioning that the key to the purpose of the crash test is to collect data, not only the car system, which also includes the impact of the collision on the human body inside the car. Through the car crash test, the study of the driver and occupants in a controlled as well as non-measurable environment in a collision force, and these data will be provided by the dummy.
In 1949, Sierra Corporation developed the world's first dummy named SierraSam, a 95th percentile adult male dummy, which was used by the U.S. Air Force to do rocket seat ejection tests, mainly to test the driver's thigh and shoulder injuries. This dummy is relatively well tolerated and applicable, but poorly reusable. Moreover, it is only somewhat similar to human in shape, weight and movement of important joints, and there are great differences in other aspects.
In 1966, the U.S. ARL company developed the VIP series of dummies, mainly for testing the pilot escape system of aircraft, but it is also more applicable to the requirements of the automotive field. Since then, GM and Ford and other automotive companies have supported the development of automotive crash dummies.
In 1971, ARL and Sierra cooperated to develop HybridI type standard dummy. In the same year, with the support of the U.S. auto giants, First Safety Systems (FTSS: FirstTechnologySafetySystems) manufactured the HybridII dummy, which the U.S. government decided to use as the standard dummy for automotive crash testing.
In 1997, FTSS successfully developed HybridIII series dummies, which are currently the most widely used dummy family in the world.